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Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei



Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei


If you want to have a better world or you are coffee lover or if your life is connected with coffee business, then you need to read this article because you will know that coffee growers are struggling to provide the best coffee for you.  Enventhough you are not coffee lover, you can continue reading because you will know how expensive coffee is. Thank you for continuing reading.


Coffee as the second most important
Coffee and caffeinated beverage are consumed every day by around 400 million of world citizens.  Coffee is the second most important things in the world after fuel. No days and nights without coffee.  Coffee are responsible for economy of more than 20 million family (around 60 million people) in the world.  Alone in North Sumatra Province of Indonesia, coffee value chain is responsible for economy life of more than 800,000 people (= 160,000 Households).  Coffee export from North Sumatera contributed approximately US$ 195 million in year 2009, felt from US$ 208 million in year 2008. North Sumatera is one of the biggest arabica coffee exporter in Indonesia. North Sumatera produces also robusta coffee.
      
We all know that coffee prices has hit its historical price.  The price seems to climb up higher and higher.  The reason is that the supply is less than demand.  The suppy decreases, the demand increases.  The decreasing supply of coffee bean is caused by the decreasing production of coffee bean. 

Coffee supply being threatened      
One of the main factors that decreases coffee production is the infection of Coffee Berry Borer (CBB).  CBB is scientificly named as Hypothenemus hampei.  CBB or Broca get named Penggerek Buah Kopi (PBKo) in Indonesian.  CBB is the most destructive pest in the world. CBB is small beetle.  The adults is  small black beetles. Females  are 1.4–1.8 mm long. The males are smaller, 1.2–1.6 mm long. Female beetles can fly short distances; males have no wing.
       
How CBB can destruct coffee bean? The followings are the explanation how CBB destruct coffee bean.  CBB bores coffee fruits, lives then inside, and eats the coffee bean inside.  In the end, all coffee beans are eaten by CBB, and therefore no more beans available in the fruit. Infection of CBB on very young fruits causes rottening of fruits, and then fruits fall.  Because of CBB, coffee bean  will not be available any more inn short future to come.  CBB is the most destructive pest to coffee fruits worldwide. That's why CBB is a devil, a black devil.  You can get farther information in this site Photos How Coffee Berry Borer Hypothenemus hampei Destructs Coffee Bean.
      
The serious danger of CBB can be imagined by remembering CBB’s life cycle (from egg to adult), life expected (from egg to death) and number of female eggs. CBB life cycle is 24-45 days, depends on climate. Two days after entering the fruits, one female puts 35-50 eggs which consist of 33-46 female. Female CBB’s life is maximum 190 days, and male 40 days. After mating inside the fruits, some of female remain in the fruits, and others go out to infect other fruits. Generally speaking, one CBB female can have hundred of thousands descendant in one year. The impact of the CBB can be read in page Coffee is Now on the Way to Death

Very significant CBB Infection
How serious is the CBB infection? To answer that question, NSCF carried out a survey on CBB infection on November 2010 in 9 regencies (Kabupaten) in North Sumatra Province of Indonesia.  The regencies are Karo, Pakpak Bharat, Dairi, Simalungun, Samosir, Humbang Hasundutan (Lintong), Toba Samosir, Tapanuli Utara and Tapanuli Selatan.  All those 9 regencies are coffee centers of North Sumatera. 
Photo : Sabam Malau (center), Arman Ginting (left) and Eman (right) conducted CBB Survey on Nov 2010 in 9 Regencies (Kabupaten) of  North Sumatera Province of Indonesia. Photo taken in Humbang Hasundutan Regency (Lintong) ( Sabam Malau, 2010)

The survey results revealed that CBB infection on coffee fruits were high to very high. In North Sumatera, mode of fruits  infection was 31-35%, and infection can reach 91,6%. Generally speaking, coffee production can be dropped significantly by 31 to 92%. 


he survey results revealed that CBB infection was found in all 9 regencies of North Sumatra. Infected fruits, the lowest (5.9%) was found in Samosir Regency, the highest (91.6%) in Toba Samosir, the lowest average (16.5%) in Karo, the highest average (43.3%) in Toba Samosir, the lowest median (11.7%) in Karo, the highest median (43.6%) in Toba Samosir, the lowest mode (6-10%) in Karo, the highest mode (41-45%) in Toba Samosir.


Concerning infected fruits due to age of infected plants.  Average in North Sumatera, 24% of  fruits of plants with 2-3 years old were infected;  the lowest (9.9%) in Karo, and the highest (37%) in Pakpak Bharat.   By using statistical correlation analysis, it was found that  amount (%) of infected fruits had highly significant correlation with age of infected plants.  The higher age of plant, the more number of infected fruits.   

Efforts by NSCF      
NSCF - North Sumatera Coffee Forum  makes efforts to maintain coffee production as well as increase economic value of coffee in short years to come. NSCF creates, implements and shares Ecoscofas.   Ecoscofas is vale and goal (further explanation can be read in Ecoscofas Coffee).  NSCF participates in developing of coffee agriculture by implementing good agricultural practice, competitive, ecofarming, integrated farming system and sustainable. The activities can be in form of training, research, seminar, workshop, consultancy, advocacy, teaching, co-worker, facilitating, etc.
      
NSCF wants to decrease infection of CBB significantly in North Sumatera, Indonesia. NSCF will build coffee farmers capacity by using TPAR Cycle which is empirically the most effective method for continuous capacity building.  Participatory Coffee Appraisal (PCA) will be used in deciding what, how, when, where, who.  Please click "N57 Method to Eradicate Coffee Berry Borer".
      
So, don't give chance to CBB   !!!!!!!!!!      
So far as concerning finance, we do need donation and facilitation from Funders or Donaturs of NSCF.  We are very thankful.
Best regards,

Dr. Sabam Malau
Chairman of NSCF

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